Transitions, evolution & history

Innovations do not arise out of a vacuum but are very much part of longer historical developments, in science, policy and society at large. As such, contemporary developments in science and technology cannot be understood without knowledge of the ways in which they build on previous work and configurations. Historical approaches explore continuities and discontinuities in the development of science and technology, drawing attention to trajectories, transitions and alternatives. Moreover, exploring how specific advances in science and technology unfold over time, including their interaction with research and science policy, can shed light on different approaches for fostering innovation and understanding their value